Welcome to the History of Masculinity Project, a political and cultural exploration of men and masculinity. It is a work-in-progress, so suggestions and questions are very much appreciated.


For over two millennia, Western man did not have a sex. He was to be an ideal rational and political being, detached from his body. Abstract and universal, he was to represent humankind.

The Masculine Gaze

Women and queers were considered sexual—as having a sex and being governed by it. Both were constantly subjected to the masculine gaze—viewed, described, and (of course) misunderstood.

Reversing the Gaze

Bucking these norms, the History of Masculinity Project reverses the masculine gaze and turns it upon men and masculinity itself. What will we find when we look at—and past—the rational political ideal?

10th Sep
Renaissance masculinity

Must-Read Books on Renaissance Masculinity

Renaissance masculinity was shaped by writers and artists like Machiavelli, Michelangelo, and Shakespeare.

10th Sep
Men and Masculinity. Roman Eagle Lightening detail

Must-Read Books on Roman Masculinity

Roman masculinity manifests in concepts like virtus, manliness or honor, derived from vir, the Latin word for man.

10th Sep
Feature Classical Greek vase satyr and herm

Must-Read Books on Greek Masculinity

Greek masculinity manifests in concepts like thumos (spirit) and andreia (manly courage).

09th Sep
Men and Masculinity | Prospero and Caliban detail

Must-Read Books on European Masculinity

Modern European masculinity is forged through encounters with classical learning, global expansionism, industrialization, and non-European forces.

01st Sep
Feature Classical Greek vase satyr and herm

The Sovereign Phallus

An excerpt from my book Politics of the Phallus: Masculinity and Power in Classical Greek Thought. Warning ➤ Academic Writing

01st Sep
Xango – Shango – Chango: "African God of Fire, Lightning, and Thunder Represents Male Power and Sexuality"

A God of Male Power and Sexuality?

Shango takes many forms in indigenous West Africa and in the African diaspora, many of them highly masculinized.

01st Sep
Phallus Penis Greece Athens Men Masculinity Manliness Manhood Male

What Was The Reign of the Phallus?

Many think of Athens as the birthplace of Western democracy, but was it actually a phallocracy?

01st Sep
The Politics of the Phallus. Gladiator, dir. Ridley Scott. Russell Crowe.

How The Romans Invented Virility

The Roman concept of virility stands distinct from humanity and is grounded on the male sex.

01st Sep

You May Be A Spornosexual

The spornosexual cultivates a body imitating sportsmen and pornstars. Are you spornosexual and not even know it?

22nd Aug
Indigenous Politics in Theory. Marshall Sahlins. Islands of History.

How Did Native Warriors Fight Captain Cook?

The great Marshall Sahlins published Islands of History in 1985 exploring, among other thing, native warriors and their response to Captain Cook.

14th Aug
Hawaii map

Hawaiian Masculinity

This journey marks my first visit to the islands of Hawai’i and my third to the islands of the Pacific.

08th Aug
Easthope What a Man's Gotta Do The Masculine Myth in Popular Culture

What Is The Masculine Myth?

According to Anthony Easthope, the masculine myth functions through concealment and even deception.

01st Aug
Men and Masculinity Studies. Bodybuilder and fitness model Attila Toth in USA tanktop

White Man’s Muscles

What do muscles say about the the white male Westerner? On the fusion of body culture and politics.

01st Aug
Augustus Caesar Gérôme detail

Augustus Caesar and Empire

The rise of Augustus Caesar transformed Rome and, thereby, the course of the Western world.

30th Jul
Olympian Male Gymnasts 2016 detail

Got Masculinity?

‘Men and masculinity are in crisis.’ Oft heard since the 1960s, such alarmism is rising again in light of deepening political and economic instability.